By W. H. S. Monck
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An 26 white, to Logic. the proposition 0, or Some men are not the following inferences From IV. Introduction we can draw : Some men are non- white Obverse. Some non- white things are men Converse by contra (1) (2) position. ) And we can infer the falsity All To men are white of, Contradictory. (3) the inferences as to the falsity of other proposi might have added the contradictory or contrary tions I of the obverse or of the converse each instance. The reader by contraposition in will notice that sub-contra and in fact riety does not occur in this list of inferences, assuming the truth of any proposition, no inference whatever can be drawn from It is if we assume only the truth of its it by it sub-contrariety.
E. Every gorical B is Judgments or Propositions, viz. All The first expresses B is C. Some B is No B is C. Some B is (1) C. (2) (3) not C. of these is often written its : meaning more (4) Every B clearly, is C, which and the second Cs. * is called Of these four propositions an Universal Affirmative, is used the latter form we should probably be understood not as several animals, but of a single animal. of speaking we Forms of Propositions. usually denoted by the letter A called a Particular Affirmative, letter tive, E the second, which is the by the letter I : : an Universal Negative, by the the fourth, which is called a Particular Nega which third, 7 : by the is called letter 0.
The comprehension of the term man is animality, reason, and a certain external form. g. in the Tom Brown, and every one else whom you choose to name. Now an inference from two propositions is called a syllogism, and when the two propositions are categorical, the syllogism is called a case of man, Julius Caesar, All categorical syllogisms depend on the following axioms categorical syllogism. : 1, If the extensions of two terms coincide with the extension of the same third term, or with the same part of such extension, their extensions coincide with each other.
An Introduction to Logic (Second Edition) (1890) by W. H. S. Monck