By B.A. Gregory
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14, so that the current to the voltage coil cancels out the proportion of the fixed coil flux due to the voltage coil current passing through the fixed coils when V + is connected to L. Power factor meter The electrodynamic power factor meter has two coils mounted on the shaft at approximately 90° to each other and connected to line voltage one via a resistance and to the other via a reactance. The angle between the coils 2 is slightly less than 90° if the series impedances are resistance and capacitance.
Thus a detector is obtained which is sensitive 34 AN INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL INSTRUMENTATION to magnitude and capable of comparing the relative phase of a single voltage with a reference. The circuit discussed above can be used satisfactorily in practice, an alternative A possible being to interchange the reference voltage VI and the signal voltage addition can be a smoothing capacitor across the moving coil meter. To reduce the vibration effects on the pointer of the moving coil meter, circuits which yield a full wave rectification are advantageous 18 .
This limitation is overcome in some of the graphical recording instruments, in particular those designed to record permanently variations in the level of a quantity, and with the ever-increasing emphasis on automation, continuously recording instruments are finding many applications, temperature recorders being but one example. Other forms of graphical recorder produce a temporary record, possibly only a display of the instantaneous values of an input signal, and these instruments which facilitate the detailed study of waveforms and analysis of circuit performance are essential for any laboratory.
An Introduction to Electrical Instrumentation: A guide to the use, selection, and limitations of electrical instruments and measuring systems by B.A. Gregory