By Wynell Graves
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9 billion liters). Ethanol is widely used in Brazil and in the United States, and together both countries were responsible for 86 percent of the world's ethanol fuel production in 2009. S. S. states and cities. Since 1976 the Brazilian government has made it mandatory to blend ethanol with gasoline, and since 2007 the legal blend is around 25% ethanol and 75% gasoline (E25). In addition, by 2010 Brazil had a fleet of more than 10 million flexible-fuel vehicles regularly using neat ethanol fuel (known as E100).
The ethanol industry in Brazil is more than 30 year-old and even though it is no longer subsidized, production and use of ethanol was stimulated through: • • • • Low-interest loans for the construction of ethanol distilleries Guaranteed purchase of ethanol by the state-owned oil company at a reasonable price Retail pricing of neat ethanol so it is competitive if not slightly favorable to the gasoline-ethanol blend Tax incentives provided during the 1980s to stimulate the purchase of neat ethanol vehicles.
Roads, though actual used of E85 fuel is limited, not only because the ethanol fueling infrastructures is limited, but also because many owners are not aware their vehicle is flex-fuel capable. In the USA there are currently about 1,900 stations distributing ethanol, although most stations are in the corn belt area. One of the debated methods for distribution in the US is using existing oil pipelines, which raises concerns over corrosion. In any case, some companies proposed building a 1,700-mile (2,700 km) pipeline to carry ethanol from the Midwest through Central Pennsylvania to New York.
Alternative Energy by Wynell Graves