By Christian Körner
Alpine treelines mark the low-temperature restrict of tree progress and take place in mountains world-wide. offering a better half to his e-book Alpine Plant Life, Christian Körner offers a world synthesis of the treeline phenomenon from sub-arctic to equatorial latitudes and a useful clarification in keeping with the biology of timber. the great textual content methods the topic in a multi-disciplinary means by means of exploring woodland styles on the fringe of tree existence, tree morphology, anatomy, climatology and, according to this, modelling treeline place, describing copy and inhabitants approaches, improvement, phenology, evolutionary facets, in addition to summarizing facts at the body structure of carbon, water and nutrient kin, and pressure body structure. It closes with an account on treelines long ago (palaeo-ecology) and a bit on international switch results on treelines, now and sooner or later. With greater than a hundred illustrations, lots of them in color, the e-book indicates alpine treelines from around the world and provides a wealth of medical details within the type of diagrams and tables.
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Extra resources for Alpine Treelines: Functional Ecology of the Global High Elevation Tree Limits
On the Amazonian slope, the Andean treeline is at 3800 m in Bolivia, but climbs to 4800 m in the Altiplano region. As will be shown, the highest treeline position on Sajama volcano (4810 m, Bolivia) does not reflect an outstanding hardiness of Polylepis trees, but a peculiar warm local climate, as result of the ‘massenerhebungseffekt’. Mountains on small islands or isolated small mountains in otherwise low elevation surroundings show comparatively low treelines (no ‘massenerhebungseffekt’, see Sect.
2. Rock fall areas, scree slopes, avalanche tracks, mudflows and loss of substrate are widespread causes for the absence of trees, not related to a specific elevation. Sharp ridges may exert similar effects than summits. Such disturbed areas do not develop climatic treelines and are not exclusive to high mountains. 3 Mass elevation effect Opposite to treeline depression, a phenomenon known as ‘massenerhebungseffekt’ (from German; in English the mass elevation effect), causes Fig. 3. Schematic representation of the ‘massenerhebungseffekt’ in large mountain systems treelines to regionally rise to higher than average elevations of a given mountain system (synthesis by Imhof 1900; reviewing works of the 19th century, Schr€ oter 1908).
Noteworthy, these data reflect the conditions during the very recent past, and the temperatures obtained are not necessarily indicating an equilibrium with concurrent treeline position because of the long lag of time between climatic change and treeline shift (see the discussion in Sect. 2). Hence, in a rapidly warming climate, temperatures measured at the treeline will be higher than those the treeline might be tracking in the long run, with discrepancies greatest in most rapidly warming regions.
Alpine Treelines: Functional Ecology of the Global High Elevation Tree Limits by Christian Körner