Read e-book online Algorithmic Game Theory PDF

By Nisan N. (Ed), Vazirani V. (Ed), Roughgarden T. (Ed)

Within the previous few years video game idea has had a considerable effect on machine technology, in particular on web- and e-commerce-related matters. greater than forty of the pinnacle researchers during this box have written chapters that pass from the rules to the state-of-the-art. uncomplicated chapters on algorithmic equipment for equilibria, mechanism layout and combinatorial auctions are via chapters on incentives and pricing, expense sharing, details markets and cryptography and defense. scholars, researchers and practitioners alike have to examine extra approximately those attention-grabbing theoretical advancements and their common sensible program.

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Vickrey’s mechanism, called second price auction, avoids these bidding problems. As before, the painting is awarded to the bidder with highest bid; however, the amount he is required to pay is the value of the second highest bid. This second price auction has the remarkable property that each player’s dominant strategy is to report his true value as bid, independent of the strategies of the rest of the players! Observe that even if his true value happens to be very high, he is in no danger of overpaying if he reports it – if he wins, he will pay no more than the second highest bid.

It is for this reason that general equilibrium theory, which studied equilibrium pricing, occupied a central place within mathematical economics. From our viewpoint, a shortcoming of this theory is that it is mostly a nonalgorithmic theory. With the emergence of numerous new markets on the Internet and the availability of massive computational power for running these markets in a centralized or distributed manner, there is a need for a new, inherently algorithmic theory of market equilibria. Such algorithms can also help understand the repercussions to existing P1: SBT 9780521872829main CUNY1061-Nisan 0 521 87282 0 July 5, 2007 14:12 markets and their algorithmic issues 23 prices, production, and consumption caused by technological advances, introduction of new goods, or changes to the tax structure.

Potential games. Games and Economic Behavior 14:124–143, 1996. J. Nash. Noncooperative games. Annals of Mathematics, 54:289–295, 1951. M. Osborne and A. Rubinstein. A Course in Game Theory, MIT Press, 1994. 1 Give a finite algorithm for finding a Nash equilibrium for a game with two players defined by a game matrix. Your algorithm may run in exponential time. 2 Consider a two-player game given in matrix form where each player has n strategies. Assume that the payoffs for each player are in the range [0, 1] and are selected independently and uniformly at random.

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Algorithmic Game Theory by Nisan N. (Ed), Vazirani V. (Ed), Roughgarden T. (Ed)

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