By Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz
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This e-book has been built from a workshop on Technological switch in agriculture and tropical deforestation organised via the guts for overseas Forestry examine and held in Costa Rica in March, 1999. It explores how intensification of agriculture impacts tropical deforestation utilizing case experiences from varied nation-states, utilizing various agricultural items and applied sciences and in differing demographic events and marketplace stipulations. advice can also be given on destiny agricultural learn and extension efforts.
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In such settings, the situation portrayed in Fig. 1 is no longer straightforward. Consider the case of pure yield-increasing technological change. If y goes up, it will have (contradictory) effects on the amount of time farmers spend working in their fields. On the one hand, technological progress increases the returns to labour. This encourages households to work more and take less leisure. In other words, if the rent function in Fig. 1 shifts outwards, the household has an incentive to supply more labour, thus shifting dL to the right.
When farmers move inputs and outputs between a village and the field, they incur transport costs. Thus, land rent diminishes as you move further from the village centre. Given these assumptions, we can use a von Thünen approach to determine how far the agricultural frontier advances. The frontier will expand until the net profit or land rent is zero. r = py −wl − qk − vd = 0 (4) Equation (4) shows the variables that influence land rent and hence the limits of the agricultural frontier. Output price (p), yield (y), wage rates (w), perhectare labour requirements (l), the price of capital (q), per-hectare capital requirements (k), transport costs per km (v) and distance in km (d) determine the land rent per hectare (r).
But by 1860 that figure had risen to over 1000 km and by the end of the century it was over 3000 km (Statistischen Bureau, 1900). Partly as a result, fuel imports doubled between 1860 and 1870, and had trebled 2 years later (Société Suisse des Forestiers, 1874). The growth of the transport network also favoured the rise of marketorientated agriculture and the concentration of agricultural production in the more fertile areas. These trends made it easier to expand the area in forest. ) Fuel-wood consumption only declined a modest 9% between 1850 and 1910.
Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation by Arild Angelsen, David Kaimowitz