By Seth Joel Corey, Marek Kimmel, Joshua N. Leonard
The blood process is multi-scale, from the organism to the organs to cells to intracellular signaling pathways to macromolecule interactions. Blood comprises circulating cells, mobile fragments (platelets and microparticles), and plasma macromolecules. Blood cells and their fragments consequence from a highly-ordered technique, hematopoiesis. Definitive hematopoiesis happens within the bone marrow, the place pluripotential stem cells supply upward push to a number of lineages of hugely really good cells. Highly-productive and always regenerative, hematopoiesis calls for a microenvironment of mesenchymal cells and blood vessels.
A structures Biology method of Blood is split into 3 major sections: simple elements, physiological strategies, and medical functions. utilizing blood as a window, you could research future health and illness via this exact instrument field with reactive organic fluids that mirrors the present hemodynamics of the vessel partitions and some of the blood cellphone forms. Many blood illnesses, infrequent and customary can and feature been exploited utilizing platforms biology methods with winning effects and hence perfect versions for platforms medication. extra importantly, hematopoiesis bargains the best studied structures with perception into stem mobile biology, mobile interplay, improvement; linage programing and reprograming which are on a daily basis prompted by means of the main mature and understood regulatory networks.
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Edu © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014 S. J. Corey et al. 1007/978-1-4939-2095-2_3 37 38 M. Koulnis et al. negative regulatory motifs. Finally, we show that signal transduction by Stat5 combines binary and graded modalities, thereby increasing signaling fidelity over the wide dynamic range of Epo found in health and disease. Keywords Erythropoiesis · Erythroblast · Stat5 · Epo · EpoR · Fas · Apoptosis, Bim, Bcl-xL , negative autoregulation · Negative feedback · Stability · Stress · PID controller · Flow cytometry · Signal transduction · Binary/digital signaling · Graded/analog signaling Overview Imagine receiving a box in the mail, containing a disassembled bicycle.
This model, which describes stem cell– niche interactions in a very simple and abstract way, has originally been proposed already in 2002 [13, 67]. , by supporting the design of new experiments, by generating new biological hypotheses, or by predicting the effect of new therapeutic strategies [68–75]. , to Roeder and Loeffler  or Roeder et al. . The model is based upon three of general principles: (a) Functional flexibility: The model assumes a separation of potential cellular properties and their actual use.
1) [5–7, 37]. This approach allows us to investigate how the frequency, number, and biochemistry of differentiation stage-specific erythroid progenitors and precursors alter in hematopoietic tissue in vivo in response to Epo, hypoxia, and other forms of erythropoietic stress. What Should a Model of the Erythropoietic System Explain? A good model should allow us to explain the erythropoietic system’s principal properties, which include: 1. Stability. In a healthy individual at sea level, the hematocrit, oxygen tension, and Epo remain within a narrow range for many years.
A Systems Biology Approach to Blood by Seth Joel Corey, Marek Kimmel, Joshua N. Leonard