By Vincent P. Gutschick
1. sensible Biology and Plant Strategies.- A. useful Biology.- B. the necessities on vegetation of their development and Function.- C. The Abiotic surroundings: Plant Autecology.- (i) Resources.- (ii)Resource demanding situations confronted through Plants.- D. Adaptive Strategies.- (i) software of the Strategic View.- (ii) Explaining variations, in style and in importance, basically in Wild Growth.- (iii) Indicating Routes to Crop Improvement.- (iv) Examples of target features and Adaptations.- E. 4 ideas of Adaptive Strategies.- F. The Calculation of vigorous charges and Benefits.- (i) 3 forms of Costs.- (ii) How strength bills impact progress and Yield.- (iii) Optimizing the Energetics of a Plant.- G. towards a Quantification of hazard and chance Management.- H. whilst and the way quickly to set up Strategies.- I. Effectiveness and obstacles of Strategic Adaptations.- (i) inner and exterior Limitations.- (ii) boundaries to Adaptive Strategies.- J. extra Strategic concerns for the Biotic Environment.- 2. Mineral Nutrition.- A. crucial components within the environment and Their Availability to Plants.- (i) full of life expenses of buying Nutrients.- (ii) Soil Processes.- B. 4 sorts of Challenges.- (i) Low Nutrient Availability in Soil.- (ii) Physiological boundaries on inner shipping and Use.- (iii) serious Imbalances between Nutrients.- (iv) Toxicity of Nonnutrients.- C. outcomes of dietary Challenges.- (i) normal and Ecological Challenges.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive Responses, Their expenses and Benefits.- (i) Autecological Responses.- (ii) Responses inside Plant Communities.- three. Photosynthesis.- A. CO2, Photons, and Their Availability to the Plant.- (i) the elemental Photosynthetic response and Its Constraints.- (ii) CO2 and Water Exchange.- (iii) CO2 and Photon delivery in entire Canopies.- (iv) Measures of Photosynthesis.- (v) internet Determinants of Photosynthesis.- B. power and Soil source makes use of: expenditures and Benefits.- (i) expenditures and advantages in Photosynthesis Alone.- (ii) Optimizing Leaf Energetics: An Example.- (iii) Use of Water and Mineral Nutrients.- (iv) Miscellaneous charges and Benefits.- C. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Resources.- (ii) Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) delivery Limitations.- (iv) Nonresource Challenges.- D. outcomes of demanding situations to Photosynthesis.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- E. Adaptive Responses, Their charges and Benefits.- (i) Responses to Low or Erratic source Availability.- (ii) Responses to Excesses and Imbalances.- (iii) Responses to move Limitations.- (iv) Responses to Nonresource Challenges.- four. Water Relations.- A. Introduction.- (i) Water in Plant constitution and Function.- (ii) Water capability and Terminology.- (iii) Water shipping in Soil.- (iv) Water Uptake via Roots.- (v) Water shipping from Roots to Leaves.- (vi) Water intake in Photosynthesis.- (vii) Cost-Benefit Analyses in Water Use.- B. Challenges.- (i) Low or Erratic Availability of Water.- (ii) delivery Limitations.- (iii) extra Water: Flooding.- (iv) Salinity, a Nonresource Hazard.- C. results of Challenges.- (i) Ecological Consequences.- (ii) Agricultural Consequences.- D. Adaptive ideas, Their charges and Benefits.- (i) thoughts for Low Water Availability.- (ii) techniques of Salt Tolerance.- (iii) innovations of Flood Tolerance.- (iv) Responses inside Ecosystems.- five. Integrative Processes.- A. New beneficial properties in long term Coordination of All source Uses.- B. Reproduction.- (i) The Vegetative-to-Reproductive Switch.- (ii) Seeds: Many and Small, or Few and Large?.- (iii) Senescence and source Scavenging.- (iv) Flower and Fruit Abortion.- (v) Pollination.- C. Germination.- D. Morphogenesis, specially Photomorphogenesis.- E. keep an eye on of Biotic Interactions.- (i) Pests and Diseases.- (ii) Symbionts.- (iii) Conspecifics and Their Gene Pool.- References.- Symbols.
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The C cost for acquiring nitrate is almost exclusively ascribed to the greater mass of root needed per g N in the shoot to acquire low-concentration nitrate, relative to the smallest root mass needed when nitrate is superabundant. The minimal root mass is needed for water uptake and other functions. 12) In one case, Gutschick and Kay (1986) calculated C as high as 42 g glucose per g N ! ) Maintenance costs are calculated on the capital mass me per g N 21 Functional Biology acquired. 050 g glucose per gDW per day (Penning de Vries, 1975), and by the effective lifetime of the capital structures.
Almost all other functional optimizations involve choice along a continuum, such as adjustment of r:s ratio, leaf carboxylase content per area, leaf area index, or the like. For such cases, the maximal net benefit is attained when the incremental or marginal net benefit, obII' vanishes for a potential small variation oSj in the quantitative parameter Sj under consideration (Mooney and GuImon, 1979, 1982, in my own notation). 22) simply says that we are at the peak of the curve of bn plotted vs.
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A Functional Biology of Crop Plants by Vincent P. Gutschick