By Abdulrahman Yarali
From the transition of analog to electronic conversation besides seamless mobility and excessive computing strength of small hand-held units, the instant communications has obvious great adjustments resulting in the mixing of numerous telecommunication networks, units and providers over final 30 years. the speed of this growth and progress has elevated rather long ago decade simply because humans now not use their units and networks for voice in basic terms, yet call for package contents akin to information download/streaming, HDTV, HD video , 3D video conferencing with better potency, seamless connectivity, intelligence, reliability and higher consumer event. even supposing the demanding situations dealing with carrier prone and telecommunication businesses range through product, sector, marketplace dimension, and their components of focus yet time to industry, effective usage in their resources and profit growth, have impacted considerably tips on how to deal with and behavior their company whereas keeping adequate margin.
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Additional resources for 4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services
In addition, a global rollout of a single radio access technology is not foreseen due to several reasons: i) the existence of several wireless technologies and flow requirements, ii) the inexistence of available spectrum, iii) network operators protecting their previous large investments and iv) frequent network congestions due to the current high popularity of more powerful handheld multimode devices. It is pertinent to remember the vision of International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) for future networking environments.
4G LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) shows a promising capability to be considered as the next global radio access network. Figure 2(a). Air interface technolgies with the bit/Hz/s. It is desirable to have a large RF channel, and higher data rate to meet user experience and less delay in data transmission time. From a system operator point of view, the more subscribers with the same quality of service on an access point, the better air interface technology and better return on investment. 4G LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) shows a promising capability to be considered as the next global radio access network.
The AC with the highest priority normally is configured with the lowest value on its AIFS[AC] parameter. Then, in a second step, the EDCF tries to avoid collisions among contending flows of the same AC using a backoff mechanism configured by CWmin[AC] and CWmax[AC] parameters that are both used to evaluate the CW[AC] window. This window is used to randomly select the backoff timer among the several contending flows (from distinct stations) belonging to the same AC. In the case of successive collisions in the channel the backoff timer is (exponentially) enlarged to enable the colliding stations to transmit their frames, a single one of these each time.
4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services by Abdulrahman Yarali